Predicting Violent Behavior in Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury: The Utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name



Graduate School of Professional Psychology

First Advisor

Kimberly A. Gorgens, Ph.D.

First Committee Member

Lisa A. Brenner, Ph.D.

Second Committee Member

Ryan E. Breshears, Ph.D.


Traumatic brain injury, Violent behavior, Veteran

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. Permanently suppressed.


This study investigated the Personality Assessment Inventory's (PAI) Violence Potential Index (VPI) and Aggression (AGG) scale as predictors of violent behavior among military veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Archival data was gathered via searches of 154 veterans' medical records to identify documented incidents of violence within a two-year period following PAI administration. Sixteen out of 154 veterans (10.4%) engaged in violent behavior. Both the VPI (p=0.002) and AGG (p=0.01) were significant predictors of violent outcomes. However, approximately half of veterans with violent behavior fell below PAI recommended cutoff values, suggesting that low scores on the VPI and AGG do not preclude future violence. Further clinical assessment of the potential for violence is warranted among veterans with TBI.

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