Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name



Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Bruce Uhrmacher, Ph.D.


Culturally Responsive Teaching, Educational Travel, Low-Income Youth, Middle Level Education, Mixed Methods, Transformative Paradigm


This transformative, explanatory, sequential mixed methods study addresses a gap in the literature regarding the meaning of educational travel in the lives of urban youth in a low-income neighborhoods. The framework for this study stems from educational travel, culturally responsive teaching, effective middle level education (AMLE), and experiential learning. First, a quantitative phase examined data from former travelers (n = 344) compared to non-travelers (n = 6,100) at Harold Middle School from 2003 to 2011. Academic achievement data examined consist of: American College Test (ACT) scores, Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP) scale scores, and grade point averages (GPA). School engagement data examined include: graduation rates, attendance rates, and suspensions. The results indicated a statistically significant difference between the travelers and the non-travelers in all variables except CSAP. Next, a qualitative phase consisting of interviews with former travelers (n = 9), and an adult chaperone focus group (n = 8) provided insights into the meaning of travel. The findings of the qualitative phase provide design structures and outcomes for short-term educational travel with middle school youth. The data analysis and integration is viewed using the transformative paradigm (Mertens, 2009).

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Received from ProQuest

Rights holder

Carrie Arlene Olson

File size

638 p.

File format





Middle School Education, Curriculum Development, Educational Evaluation

Available for download on Friday, September 14, 2018

Included in

Education Commons