Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name



Child, Family and School Psychology

First Advisor

Karen Riley, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Kathy Green

Third Advisor

Karin Dittrick-Nathan

Fourth Advisor

Kathleen Ohman


Math, Nonverbal, Spatial temporal


Algebra is typically the gatekeeper for higher-level math coursework. Low math performance on standardized assessments impedes access to these higher-level math classes. Limited math progress in high school affects future career opportunities and quality of life. High school students who have historically struggled with math need interventions that work. Research indicates that the research on reading interventions far outnumbers the research on math interventions. With the passage of new federal legislation requiring schools to document progress for all groups of students and allowing schools to use Response to Intervention models, the need for evidence based math interventions becomes even more pressing. This research examined the effects of the MIND Research Institute's Algebra Readiness program in order to provide an evidence base for this intervention. In this pre- experimental study, two groups of high school students were exposed to the MIND Research Institute's Algebra Readiness program and changes in their math performance were analyzed. Students with and without diagnosed disabilities, were assigned to two tiers of intervention. The double dosed students received instruction with the core Algebra I curriculum and the Algebra Readiness program whereas the single dosed students only received the Algebra Readiness intervention. Independent samples t-tests; ANCOVA, percentage change, qualitative teacher responses and correlation procedures were used to analyze the scores of students. The outcome measures included scores on a post test, grade level curriculum based measures and the state sponsored standardized assessment. Because of limited sample size and possible lack of sensitivity of the outcome measures, overall no significant growth was detected. The students who were double dosed showed significant growth on the end of year, grade level assessment as compared to those students who only participated in the intervention. Although the sample size was small, the effect sizes were large, indicating potential practical significance for this intervention. This research suggests that using visual spatial representations in a mostly nonverbal, computer-based format may show promise as an intervention for students. More research with a larger sample size and a more controlled research design will help definitively answer the questions about the effectiveness of the Algebra Readiness program.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.


Received from ProQuest

Rights holder

Nancy Quick

File size

138 p.

File format





Mathematics education, Educational psychology, Education policy