Development of a Methodology for Determining a Site-Specific Benchmark Dose for Pronghorn Antelope (Antilocapra Americana) Using the Pollutant Hydrogen Fluoride

Date of Award


Document Type

Undergraduate Capstone Project

Degree Name

Master of Env Policy Mgmt

Organizational Unit

University College, Environmental Policy and Management


Environmental Policy & Mgmt

First Advisor

James Stewart


Air, Pollution, Standards, Benchmark dose, Fluoride, Fluorine, Toxicology, Hydrogen fluoride, Physiological effect, Pronghorn


This project establishes a Benchmark Dose (BMD) for antelope in Wyoming by calculating a fluoride in forage standard. The BMD methodology replaces the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect (NOAEL) methodology which is used to calculate the level of a pollutant an animal can tolerate. In order to calculate a BMD for fluoride, the fluoride in forage and the effects on the antelope's teeth are determined. A sampling plan was developed for antelope jawbones and sagebrush. The results derived from the sampling plan are inputted into a BMD software package and a BMD for the pollutant and species in question is derived. The results derived from the BMD software equals the new regulatory standard for the pollutant.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. Permanently suppressed.

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