Development of a Methodology for Determining a Site-Specific Benchmark Dose for Pronghorn Antelope (Antilocapra Americana) Using the Pollutant Hydrogen Fluoride

Date of Award


Document Type

Capstone Project


Environmental Policy & Mgmt

Degree Name

Master of Env Policy Mgmt


Environmental Policy And Management


James Stewart


Air -- Pollution -- Standards -- Methodology; Benchmark Dose; Fluoride; Fluorine -- Toxicology -- Research; Hydrogen fluoride -- Physiological effect -- research; Pronghorn; Sampling Plan


This project establishes a Benchmark Dose (BMD) for antelope in Wyoming by calculating a fluoride in forage standard. The BMD methodology replaces the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect (NOAEL) methodology which is used to calculate the level of a pollutant an animal can tolerate. In order to calculate a BMD for fluoride, the fluoride in forage and the effects on the antelope's teeth are determined. A sampling plan was developed for antelope jawbones and sagebrush. The results derived from the sampling plan are inputted into a BMD software package and a BMD for the pollutant and species in question is derived. The results derived from the BMD software equals the new regulatory standard for the pollutant.

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