A Proposed Annex to the Wreck Removal Convention Treaty to Address Environmental Hazards of Sunken World War II Naval Vessels

Date of Award


Document Type

Capstone Project


Environmental Policy And Management

Degree Name

Master of Environmental Policy And Management


Environmental Policy And Management


William Robinson


World War, 1939-1945 -- Naval operations; environmental; hazardous materials; Marine pollution -- Environmental aspects; naval wrecks; navigation hazard; oil spill; Warships -- History -- 20th century; Warships -- Law and legislation; World War II; Wreck Removal Convention


The devastation of World War II continues today. Over 9,000 vessels were sunk in all of the world's oceans, creating many potential threats. Hazards include oil spills, chemical releases, unexploded ordnance, coral-reef degradation, and hazards to navigation. World War II wrecks are still considered sovereign property as well as war graves. At present, there is not an international treaty to manage the potential threats from these wrecks. A new treaty, the Wreck Removal Convention, will be signed by all maritime nations in May 2007; however, this treaty does not address World War II wrecks. This Capstone provides an Annex to the Wreck Removal Convention specifically for sovereign naval wrecks, most of which are from World War II.

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