Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name



Graduate School of Professional Psychology

First Advisor

Fernand Lubuguin

First Committee Member

Ragnar Storaasli

Second Committee Member

Jerry Yager


Human trafficking, Modern slavery, Trauma focused therapy

Publication Statement

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This article addresses the issue of human trafficking, also termed modern slavery, specifically focusing on the treatment of survivors of Commercial Sexual Exploitation (CSE). Treatment recommendations are made based on a trauma-focused, relational model aimed at reinstating psychological well-being in the survivor. This article reviews the literature on three related bodies of research due to the absence of direct psychological literature. Literature on captivity, control and torture, literature on the treatment of refugees and asylum seekers, and literature on sexual abuse treatment for those who have been victimized through the sex trade. Additionally, practical aspects of human trafficking are discussed in order to clarify the complexity and severity of the psychological impact that this illegal market causes on its human commodity. Policy and protocol, commercial sexual exploitation, and the basic operational structure of human trafficking syndicates are examined to create a candid representation of the survivor’s experience.


68 pages

Included in

Psychology Commons