A Systems Analysis of Multicultural Education in the Training of Clinical Psychologists

Date of Award


Document Type

Doctoral Research Paper

Degree Name



Graduate School of Professional Psychology

First Advisor

Laura Meyer, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Shelly Smith-Acuña, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Brieanne Kohrt, Ph.D.

Fourth Advisor

William E. Cross, Jr., Ph.D.


Systems theory, Multicultural education, Clinical training, Cilinical psychology

Publication Statement

Copyright held by the author. Permanently suppressed.


This theoretical paper applies systems theory to analysis of multicultural education in doctoral programs in clinical psychology in the United States that are accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA). Using core concepts of systems theory—context, communication, early templates, circular causality, and change processes—this paper articulates the stakeholder perspectives and relational dynamics that operate when multiculturalism is taught in this training setting. From the theoretical concepts, the author derives recommendations intended for Directors of Clinical Training (DCTs), APA policymakers, educators, and researchers, who possess the power to promulgate changes at all levels, from shifts in institutions to shifts in the experience of individual students.


71 pgs

Paper Method

Theoretical Analysis and Synthesis

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