Date of Award


Document Type

Doctoral Research Paper

Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Graduate School of Professional Psychology

First Advisor

Kathryn Barrs

Second Advisor

Mallaree Blake

Third Advisor

Brian Beaumund


LGBTQ+ youth, Mental health, Primary care, Minority stress model


Individuals in positions of power influence youth wellbeing, self-perception, and overall mental health. According to the minority stress model, individuals who hold marginalized identities, such as LGBTQ+ youth, face unique, chronic, and socially based additive stressors. Research shows that these additive stressors contribute to LGBTQ+ youth experiencing disproportionate rates of mental health concerns. Queer youth are more than four times as likely to attempt suicide than their non-queer identifying peers. Additive stressors that LGBTQ+ youth face include prejudiced events, stigma, decisions of concealment or disclosure, and internalized homophobia and transphobia. This paper will review and integrate research, utilizing the minority stress model as a foundation for understanding primary care physicians’ roles in contributing to or dismantling the historical harm that queer youth encounter within the United States healthcare system and beyond. The application of this model allows for an investigation of both individual and systemic factors contributing to the queer youth mental health crisis, advocating for accountability and change for both individual providers and the healthcare system at large. Findings from this integrated review illuminate lessons for primary care physicians to improve mental health outcomes for their queer youth patients. Action steps are recommended, and local, state, and national resources are provided.

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.


47 pgs

Available for download on Thursday, August 01, 2024