Date of Award


Document Type

Masters Thesis

Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Josef Korbel School of International Studies, International Studies

First Advisor

Tamra Pearson d'Estrée, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Kevin Archer

Third Advisor

Douglas Allen


Conflict resolution, Provisions, Resilience, Resiliency, River treaty, Water conflict


Climate change will be most apparent in alterations to the hydrologic system - shifts in movement, variations in extremes - thereby defining many resource disputes in the coming decades. Water is a boundaryless resource; as its hydrologic patterns shift within and without borders, so too will preexisting agreements on its use and allocation. The question for transboundary water agreements is: how can agreements both satisfy parties' needs and account for future uncertainties of climate-induced changes to their basins' hydrologic systems?

From examining literature and water agreements, this thesis develops a list of provisions identified as foundational to resiliency in transboundary water agreements. The context of Central Asia provides a case study for determining the effectiveness of provisions in fostering resiliency, ultimately concluding that, if the implementation of an agreement is weak, then the impact of provisions is negated. The value of an agreement's content is secondary to the resilient action resulting from it. Future research is needed to understand how provisions can be used to promote or strengthen agreement implementation.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Emily Joan Zmak


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

125 p.


Water resources management, International relations, Natural resource management