Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Morgridge College of Education, Teaching and Learning Sciences, Child, Family, and School Psychology

First Advisor

Tara C. Raines

Second Advisor

P. Bruce Uhrmacher

Third Advisor

Gloria Miller

Fourth Advisor

Trisha Raque-Bogdan

Fifth Advisor

Krystyna Matusiak


Cultural humility, Culture, Diversity, Friendship, Race, Theory of mind


School psychologists and other school personnel are trained to engage in selfreflective and culturally humble practices to better serve an increasingly racially diverse student population. While most literature on cultural humility (CH) focuses on its development in professionals, this research study looks at its development in students experiencing the phenomenon of racially diverse friendship. Previous research has found there to be a significant relationship between Theory of Mind (ToM) and social competence. The intended purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between ToM and CH amongst high school students who are part of racially diverse friendship groups. Through a phenomenological approach, eight adolescents experiencing the phenomenon of racially diverse friendship were interviewed about their friendship experiences. Four themes were developed from their stories: Similarities, Contextual Influence, Racial Consciousness, and Perspective. Six out of the eight participants were White-identified; as a result, rich information about the racially diverse friendship experience of White-identified adolescents and how their participation in racially diverse friendship contribute to their perspective taking abilities is presented. This study provides new insight into three constructs that have never before been researched as a trio: racially diverse adolescent friendship, ToM, and CH. It provides valuable insight into how school psychologists may build CH and ToM in students through racially diverse friendship.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Arielle Brooke Mottes


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

153 p.


Educational psychology, Social psychology, Psychology