Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Morgridge College of Education, Teaching and Learning Sciences, Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Maria Salazar

Second Advisor

Nicholas J. Cutforth

Third Advisor

Kimberly Schmidt


Culturally sustaining practices, Emergent bilingual, Literacy, Rural


Over nine million students in the United States attend school in rural school districts, with a growing percentage of these students identified as emergent bilingual. The purpose of this study is to examine the national emergent bilingual literacy trends and to determine how the opportunities and challenges that rural educators encounter, impact emergent bilingual education in rural schools. Utilizing a theoretical framework of culturally sustaining practices and funds of knowledge, this study uses a convergent mixed methods design to answer the following research questions: What are the national trends in emergent bilingual reading test scores? What opportunities and challenges do teachers encounter in meeting the literacy needs of emergent bilingual students in rural areas? How does the convergence of national literacy data and experiences of rural teachers provide insight for rural school districts with growing emergent bilingual populations? In a convergent design, quantitative and qualitative data are collected at the same time and do not depend upon the other data set for analysis. The first research question will be answered using secondary data from 4th and 8th grade reading NAEP tests. The second research question will be answered using a case study of a rural district in Colorado. The integration of the two data sets will provide insight and guidance for schools with growing emergent bilingual populations.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Andrea Johnson


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

132 pgs