Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Daniel Felix Ritchie School of Engineering and Computer Science, Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

David Wenzhong Gao

Second Advisor

Mohammad Matin

Third Advisor

Rui Fan

Fourth Advisor

Ali Azadani


Arbitrage, Battery energy storage system (BESS) power and energy rating, Electric vehicle (EV) battery, Frequency regulation market, Sizing


Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) play a dominant role in the reliability, resiliency, economics, and operational flexibility of the power grid. As such, the BESS is a promising and reliable green technology for supporting power grid facilities. However, the integration of BESS technology into power projects can be expensive and challenging, both technologically and in terms of regulation compliance. Thus, it is necessary to examine best practices for fully optimizing BESS sizing, operation, and scheduling in the context of benefiting BESS operators and investors by fully exploiting the valuable economic and technical benefits of BESSs. In this research, we identify several factors in regard to BESS’s simultaneous participation in the energy arbitration and frequency regulation markets and how certain BESS characteristics must be considered to optimize return on investment and profit for BESS operators/investors. Specifically, we comprehensively investigate and discuss BESS participation in the energy and ancillary services markets using historical PJM data and by utilizing new sizing and management models to overcome the current challenges involved with integrating BESSs into the power grid.

Planning models are developed to determine the optimal values for a microgrid-integrated BESS in terms of power rating, energy rating, and reserved capacity when the microgrid in question participates in the PJM frequency regulation and energy markets. The integrated, optimally-sized BESS seeks to minimize fuel consumption from thermal units in the microgrid and to capture renewable energy to then be traded in the grid market. Furthermore, a novel MILP-optimization methodology is developed and proposed to optimally size and operate a grid-scale Li-ion BESS that performs stacked services. In this model, the state of charge after discharging constrains the BESS’s operation. The model considers BESS degradation costs and discharging rate. The model determines the cost function of each of these factors with special attention to the life cycle of a Li-ion BESS. Our research fills a critical gap in the literature by providing a comprehensive approach to the optimal sizing and management of BESSs while considering various uncertainties, contributing to the sustainable integration and operation of BESSs in power grid facilities. Moreover, we investigated the size of BESS while considering uncertainties in both market frequency and energy, BESS cost, and the Automatic Generation Control (AGC) signal. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was applied to assess BESS efficiency. Thus, a comprehensive sizing model was considered in order to observe the effects of these uncertainty parameters on the size of the BESS. For BESS management, a scheduling model to operate a BESS performing stacked grid services simultaneously is developed. This model aims to maximize the economic return on investment of the BESS while also prolonging its lifespan. The BESS operational control methodology is simulated and solved using MILP. The approach is designed to maximize BESS revenue by optimally bidding in several markets. Finally, we present a viability assessment of a repurposed battery from an electric vehicle (REVB) performing grid applications, in which we evaluate how economical REVBs can be for providing frequency regulation and energy arbitrage. A 1-year planning model for REVBs is applied to compare an REVB BESS with a BESS with new batteries with consideration of a number of factors, including capital cost. In conjunction with this examination of REVBs, we also investigate the cost and lifecycles of the second life of EV batteries.

Copyright Date


Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

All Rights Reserved
All Rights Reserved.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Abdullah Muslih Alharbi


Received from ProQuest

File Format



English (eng)


142 pgs

File Size

1.9 MB


Electrical engineering

Available for download on Friday, September 12, 2025