Date of Award
Nader Hashemi, Ph.D.
Mariano Torcal, Ph.D.
Comparative study, Democracy, Iran, Portugal, Transition
The thesis compares the period of transition to democracy in Portugal and Iran after the collapse of the authoritarian regimes through revolutions in 1974 in Portugal and 1979 in Iran. Despite the similarities the cases share, the outcome of the transition in Portugal was a political democracy while Iran faced the rise of authoritarianism. The research compares the similar and dissimilar variables between Portugal and Iran such as the form of the break with authoritarianism and holding of initial elections, institutional design, involvement in wars, and popular mobilization. By keeping respecting factors as control variables, the thesis argues for the role of Ayatollah Khomeini, and elite decisions, as the most determinative factors influencing the political outcome. In Portugal, in the absence of a leader uniting the elite and inability of political factions to solely consolidate their power, the Portuguese elite had to compromise. In contrast, in Iran, a charismatic leader, who favored the Islamic Republican Party over other factions, played the most determinative role in directing Iran toward authoritarianism.
Markarian Senagani, Loosineh, "Comparative Study of Transition to Democracy in Portugal and Iran" (2009). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 398.
Received from ProQuest
Loosineh Markarian Senagani
Political Science, Design