Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Josef Korbel School of International Studies

First Advisor

Timothy Sisk, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Rachel Epstein

Third Advisor

Jack Donnelly

Fourth Advisor

Deborah Avant


Development, Gender, Governance, Participation, United Nations Development Programme, World Bank


Constructivist analyses of international norm articulation assume that norm articulation happens through the process of international discussion and agreement, yet such works lack a rigorous analysis of how international organizations articulate norms for the world internal to the organization. Further, analyses of international organization norm articulation almost completely ignore the important influence of leadership. This dissertation analyzes two distinct norms of gender equality and participation in two international organizations, the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. The theory developed here argues that the leader's ability to influence norm articulation is dependent on the organizational culture which reflexively impacts the influence of the leader. Leadership drivers of norm articulation include major speeches, influence over and relationship with organizational Executive Boards, and punishment and reward tactics. In analyzing gender equality and participation, I argue that the two organizations articulated the norms differently based on different logics of governance. The World Bank prioritizes government public service delivery efficiency and effectiveness in achieving development goals, while the UNDP favors civil society empowerment and participation in decision-making procedures and government policies. These logics affect the way the leader is able to articulate the norm and impacts the final articulation into policy and practice for both organizations.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Roni Kay Marie O'Dell


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

332 p.


International relations, Political Science, Organization theory