Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Morgridge College of Education

First Advisor

Linda L. Brookhart, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Janette Benson

Third Advisor

P. Bruce Uhrmacher

Fourth Advisor

Carolyn Mears


Reading, Instruction, English as a second language, English language learners, Kindergarten, Teachers, ESL


This research was designed to describe, analyze, and interpret what reading strategies experienced kindergarten teachers believe are essential to instruct English-as-a-Second-Language learners how to read. Through in-depth interviews, experienced kindergarten teachers were given a voice to describe what they consider essential reading strategies to instruct English-as-a-Second-Language learners to learn how to read.

The participants were four licensed, non-probationary kindergarten teachers instructing reading in English to a minimum of 51% English-as-a-Second-Language population. Selected kindergarten programs were consistent in program design. Processes were influenced by the gateway approach. The stories teachers told about their experiences in teaching ELLs how to read was a means to connect with narrator experiences.

The excerpted narratives for each participant required an understanding of the narrator's story in the context of their environment, their experience, and through the salient stories they shared. Patterns were discovered and shared in excerpted narratives and ultimately global themes were derived. Finally, this study has provided kindergarten teachers and administrators with practical knowledge regarding what is essential to instruct reading to English Language Learners in kindergarten.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Emma Kaye Penn


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

167 p.


Reading instruction, Early childhood education