Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Morgridge College of Education

First Advisor

Franklin A. Tuitt, Ed.D.

Second Advisor

P. Bruce Uhrmacher

Third Advisor

Linda Bowman

Fourth Advisor

Martin Rhodes

Fifth Advisor

Cathy Lines


Bystander, Postsecondary, Shooting, Violence


Multiple incidents of postsecondary school shooting violence have occurred in American society--prompting concern about safety on college campuses, administrators' roles in prevention, and proactive and responsible bystander actions. Active shooter plans have become more established in educational environments, with efforts are directed toward both the perpetrator and the victims. Limited information, however, has been provided regarding how bystanders would, or even should, construe and characterize their roles in such incidents. Numerous professional and governmental researchers in organizations throughout the United States (e.g., the Center for Disease Control Injury Center, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, National Consortium on Violence Research-Carnegie Mellon University, and the Violence Prevention Research Program-University of California, Davis) have identified that prevention remains the best action. The American Colleges Health Association (ACHA) leaders asked postsecondary educational institutions' leaders to become engaged more actively in prevention efforts. In the current study, the researcher's own reconditioned hermeneutic design was used to examine appropriate bystander action during an incident of school shooting violence based on an Adapted Social Systems Model. Internal and external socioeconomic factors with influence on student bystander action were addressed. School administrators might find insight from the findings, implications, and future directions for research as discussed. The results include a framework for the development of the ARISE bystander action model, a school violence ecological model in which the student bystander is placed in the center. The ARISE model might be used as an action strategy for postsecondary institutions with a multidisciplinary approach to informing new policies and procedures.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Dyan Whitlow Underhill


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

211 p.


Higher education