Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Morgridge College of Education

First Advisor

Gloria Miller, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Kathy Green

Third Advisor

Karin Dittrick-Nathan

Fourth Advisor

Naomi Reshotko


Alternative identifying tools, Gifted education, Multicultural, Parent advocacy, Parent perception


The primary purpose of this study was to develop a psychometrically sound scale to investigate the perception differences of giftedness between parents of various culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Historically, schools adopt the early definition of giftedness that is presented, too narrowly focusing only on intelligence and achievement tests (Baldwin, 2005). This phenomenon has led to minority students, particularly Black and Hispanic, being significantly underrepresented in gifted programs (Naglieri & Ford, 2003). Environmental factors, such as socio-economic status and parent education levels, significantly impact these marginalized populations. The Parent Perception of Giftedness Scale (PPGS), grounded in Spearman and Gardner's theory of intelligence presenting both traditional and non-traditional characteristics of giftedness, along with Kingore's (2004) conceptual framework of high achievers, were used to examine these factors. The survey aimed to identify which characteristics are endorsed by pre-school parents and analyzed the survey responses to see if any significant differences emerged by race, parent education level and socio-economic status. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to determine significant differences that emerged between these variables and their perception of giftedness. This study helps develop awareness for schools and parents of how giftedness is manifested in a variety of ways and allows us to begin to work on reducing the racial disproportionality of students that exists in gifted education.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Amber Waheed


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

187 p.


Gifted education, Multicultural education