Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Morgridge College of Education

First Advisor

Jesse N. Valdez, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Christopher Kilmartin

Third Advisor

Patrick Sherry

Fourth Advisor

Stephen Shirk


Anger, Depression, Diagnosis, Gender roles, Masculinity ideology


Large scale studies of the incidence and prevalence of psychological disorders have consistently shown that women meet full DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder at twice the rate of men (Kessler et al., 1994; Kessler et al., 2003; NCS-R, 2007; Robins & Reiger, 1991). Some have proposed (Cochran & Rabinowitz, 2000; Kilmartin, 2005; Pollack, 1998) that the current DSM-IV diagnostic criteria do not adequately reflect the depressive symptoms of some men. Men tend to use more externalizing defenses and distracting coping styles to manage negative affect, and anger is hypothesized as an externalizing symptom of a masculine variation of major depressive disorder (Magovcevic & Addis, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine how adherence to masculine gender role norms and anger predict depressive symptoms in men. A multiple regression model was developed to examine the ability of trait anger, expressed anger, and adherence to traditional masculine role norms in predicting depressive symptoms in a sub-sample of male college students (n = 267). The regression model of masculine depression was found to moderately predict depressive symptoms. Trait anger also moderately predicted depressive symptoms in the male sub-sample. Although it was expected that specific masculine role norms (e.g. self-reliance and emotional restriction) would also relate to depressive symptoms, no masculine role norms were associated with male students' endorsement of depressive symptoms. Additional clinical implications, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are addressed.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Matthew Charles Genuchi


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

138 p.


Clinical psychology