Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Josef Korbel School of International Studies

First Advisor

Rachel A. Epstein, Ph.D.


Economic liberalization, Economic reform, International financial institutions, Kenya, Moi, Popular pressure, Political liberalization, World Bank


This dissertation examines the influence of internal and external actors in pressuring Kenya to embrace liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s during the Moi presidency. It argues that internal actors had more influence than external actors such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in forcing the Moi government to concede to liberalization. To make its argument, the dissertation analyzes the influence of Kenya's colonial history, Harambee (self-help groups), the economic decline of the 1970s and 1980s, ethnic rivalry, and the role of Moi's repressive regime in bringing about liberalization. It uses Kenya's agricultural and financial sectors as case studies to explain how the influence of these actors/factors contributed to liberalization. The dissertation concludes by emphasizing why it is important to seriously consider the role of internal actors when examining liberalization (or any other reform policies). One reason is that the "on-the-ground" actors are primary in determining whether or not a policy can even be implemented, let alone succeed. In that respect, the dissertation recommends that international financial institutions consult with all domestic actors, including political and social activists, as part of their engagement with governments on any reform initiative.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Figaro Joseph


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

186 p.


International relations, African studies