Date of Award


Document Type

Doctoral Research Paper

Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Morgridge College of Education, Higher Education

First Advisor

Ryan Evely Gildersleeve, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Michelle Tyson, Ed.D.

Third Advisor

Christine Nelson, Ph.D.


Utilization-focused evaluation, Paramedic, Hybrid learning, Academic self-efficacy


The purpose of this study was to conduct a utilization-focused evaluation of the paramedic hybrid learning program at Colorado Mountain College, a rural community college. The study examined the relationship between student academic self-efficacy (SASE) and learning in a hybrid program and the effect of SASE on program satisfaction. Data were collected through multiple methods, including a questionnaire of program graduates from 2014 to 2018, interviews of seven past graduates, and a focus group involving eight stakeholders. These data were carefully analyzed for accuracy and then coded for relevant elements. The findings, evaluated in relation to two guiding research questions, were presented in terms of four major elements of the program: (1) learning environment, (2) self-reliance, (3) faculty and program facilitator preparedness, and (4) prior knowledge.

Program recommendations for practice discussed SASE and learning in a hybrid program. They also discussed student satisfaction, reliance, and motivation. Nine specific recommendations were offered to the program: (1) foster intentional instructional practices, (2) promote resilience, (3) offer precourse student training, (4) improve student-instructor interaction, (5) offer faculty professional development, (6) improve instructor competence, (7) make changes to the curriculum design, (8) adjust course scheduling, (9) and improve the clinical coordination process. Recommendations for future research include identifying the specific motivational factors that interact directly with SASE in hybrid learning; addressing hybrid learning and self-efficacy from the faculty perspective; exploring what instructional elements support SASE in hybrid learning; and re-evaluating the paramedic hybrid program after program improvements have been implemented.

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