Katie Friesen


Terrorism within Europe, until 2004, was limited to internal, historical conflict between the state and dissenting factions, such as Spain’s Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) or the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in the United Kingdom. Islamic violence was strongly linked to the Middle East, as well as to America’s “War on Terror” initiative following the attacks of September 11. However, after the Madrid bombings in 2004 and the London subway bombings in 2005, Islamist terrorism has not only become a very real threat, it has also developed into an issue with which Europeans identify personally. The bombings resulted in mass casualties which have, in turn, altered many of Europe’s views regarding its role in the “War on Terror,” the origins of terrorism, and security policy more generally. The following bibliography addresses some of the key outcomes regarding European responses to the Islamic attacks.

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