climate, environment


Global climate change is a change in the long-term weather patterns that characterize the regions of the world. The term “weather” refers to the short-term (daily) changes in temperature, wind, and/or precipitation of a region. In the long run, the climatic change could affect agriculture in several ways such as quantity and quality of crops in terms of productivity, growth rates, photosynthesis and transpiration rates, moisture availability etc. Climate change is likely to directly impact food production across the globe. Increase in the mean seasonal temperature can reduce the duration of many crops and hence reduce the yield. In areas where temperatures are already close to the physiological maxima for crops, warming will impact yields more immediately. Drivers of climate change through alterations in atmospheric composition can also influence food production directly by its impact on plant physiology. The consequences of agriculture’s contribution to climate change, and of climate change’s negative impact on agriculture, are severe which is projected to have a great impact on food production and may threaten the food security and hence, require special agricultural measures to combat with. Although India has a rich and long history of environmental laws dating back to the 1970s, it still ranks very low on air and water pollution levels compared to the rest of the world resulting in higher rates of infant mortality and lower life expectancy rates. Poor sanitation conditions and sewage problems compound the problem affecting the health of ordinary citizens in India. The reasons for this disconnect between enlightened environmental laws and high levels of pollution could be traced to existing environmental laws, discrepancies in the environmental guidelines for businesses to follow between the central government and at the state levels, and the existence of a large number of SMEs who neither have the resources nor the technical skills to adhere to the existing environmental laws. Using extensive secondary research, this paper suggests a series of steps to help the country achieve safe air and water pollution levels resulting in improved health conditions for its citizens. The cornerstone of the prescription for improvements in the environment is a collaborative arrangement that brings together the various government agencies, the citizens, SMEs, large domestic companies, and NGOs to participate in a collaborative arrangement to educate, streamline effective policies, develop the necessary institutional infrastructure, and provide adequate funding for improving the environment.