Associational migration, employment, income, social status, economic independence


Goa is one of the most economically prosperous states of India. Many migrants flow in to Goa from various parts of India to seek employment. Since rural areas people faced the problem of lack better employment opportunities in the villages, they migrate to urban areas where they expect to get productive employment. Though male migrants outnumber females the role played by women migrants cannot be overlooked. Women have migrated to Goa either with their spouses, or independently and they have taken up jobs on various levels of hierarchy from unskilled, casual work to highly paid and highly skilled jobs. The study focuses primarily on low skilled and unskilled jobs taken up by the female migrant workers in different sectors of economy in Goa. It tries to identify the socio-economic status of the migrant women labour-force. It is seen that the female migrants have migrated as associational migrants along with their spouses. They take up jobs as domestic helps, labourers in construction industry and helpers in factories and shops. They earn a low income but nevertheless contribute equally in household expenses and savings. Their social status gets enhanced as they are economically independent which also results in an enhanced autonomy in the family. They are able to make household decisions. They face a major challenge as they have to keep a balance between their household responsibilities and also focus on their jobs. With the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic situation and the sudden lockdown announced in the country,thestatusoftheiremployment has come to a standstill. Majority of the migrant women have lost their jobs and their income has stopped. After the commencement of special trains many migrated back to their native place.