IR research on medieval international society has been mixed. On the one hand, interest in “neo-medievalism” has led to some discussion of international relations of the medieval era. Hedley Bull first used the term to refer to a simultaneous trend towards cosmopolitanism as well as fragmentation (Bull 1977), so it is in this sense in which scholars like Ruggie (1983, for example) have used the term. However, much of this research has merely touched upon ideas of medieval international society, and not upon medieval international society itself and what it has to offer contemporary debates.
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Bania-Dobyns, Sarah, "Hierarchy or Heterarchy? Actors of Medieval International Society at the Council of Constance and the Peace of Augsburg" (2008). International Studies: Faculty Scholarship. 2.
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