Stan Gudder

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Causal set approach, Discrete quantum gravity, Quantum sequential growth process


This paper is based on the causal set approach to discrete quantum gravity. We first describe a classical sequential growth process (CSGP) in which the universe grows one element at a time in discrete steps. At each step the process has the form of a causal set (causet) and the “completed” universe is given by a path through a discretely growing chain of causets. We then quantize the CSGP by forming a Hilbert space H on the set of paths. The quantum dynamics is governed by a sequence of positive operators ρn on H that satisfy normalization and consistency conditions. The pair (H, {ρn}) is called a quantum sequential growth process (QSGP). We next discuss a concrete realization of a QSGP in terms of a natural quantum action. This gives an amplitude process related to the “sum over histories” approach to quantum mechanics. Finally, we briefly discuss a discrete form of Einstein’s field equation and speculate how this may be employed to compare the present framework with classical general relativity theory.


This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in the International Journal of Theoretical Physics. The final authenticated version is available online at:

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