Publication Date


Document Type


Organizational Units

College of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, Lamont School of Music, Musicology and Ethnomusicology


Orchestra, Conducting, Music


There are a lot of conductors, and every conductor is different. There are as many conducting techniques as well. But one of the most famous approaches in conducting an ensemble, whether a wind ensemble, orchestra, or chorus, is to deliver the beat and expecting the ensemble for an immediate ‘attack’ of the note. An instant reciprocation and reaction at the same exact time as the ‘ictus’ of the conductor. Basically, doing it exactly together. The other notion is that the conductor beating should be beating ahead of time (almost a beat ahead) to give the ensemble some time to prepare and eventually react to the gestures of the one who’s standing on the podium. Esa-Pekka Salonen, the then chief conductor of the LA Philharmonic, is an ambassador of the approach of expecting music on the beat. While Daniele Gatti, the former chief conductor of the Concertgebouw Orchestra, gives the beat ahead and seem to be as effective as the method of Salonen. Both conducting two of the best orchestras in the world. In this annotated bibliography are the resource materials that will serve as important tools, both technical and historical perspectives from the great conductors of the past and the conductors of today, that would help to arrive with the conclusion of which method is actually better to produce a more reactive, pleasant, or particular sound.

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.