Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

College of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, English and Literary Arts

First Advisor

Brian Kiteley


Creative writing, Fiction


Each of the four characters represent four approaches to the dynamic between the academy and the inner city because the novel lies at the intersections of four critical frameworks. First, the post and post-postmodern literary theory of Calinescu, McHale, and Huber, who do excellent work in establishing the dramatic effects of both epistemological and ontological stances toward literary representations of reality. Secondly, the works of Rafter, Farrell, Hayword, and Young, in particular and popular/cultural criminology. Popular/cultural criminology can be summarized as “a category composed of discourses about crime found not only in film but also on the Internet, on television and in newspapers, novels and rap music and myth” (Rafter 7). Thirdly, the novel engages the historical criticism of the crime genre itself, through Scaggs, Hilfer, and Malpas. This historical contextualization is pivotal to understanding the “implicitly or explicitly political stance” on the societies of a crime writer’s day (Malpas 113). Those political stances become especially important when read in the light of the multi-cultural criticism of Patricia Linton, which helps us to realize that “by appropriating well-established genres, writers . . . make their narratives sites of cultural negotiation, in which both writer and reader have much at stake” (Linton 22). Those stakes, however, only exist in the borderland between the political stances of the mainstream eurocentric reader and the marginalized ethnic writer.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. This work may only be accessed by members of the University of Denver community. The work is provided by permission of the author for individual research purposes only and may not be further copied or distributed. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Christopher David Rosales


Received from author

File Format




File Size

466 pgs


Creative writing