Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name



Electrical Engineering

First Advisor

David Wenzhong Gao, Ph.D.


CART2, Energy Storage System, FAST, Frequency Regulation, Inertial Response, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator


With ever-increasing penetration of wind power into modern electric grids all over the world, a trending replacement of conventional synchronous generators by large wind power plants will likely result in the poor overall frequency regulation performance. On the other hand, permanent magnet synchronous generator wind Turbine System (PMSG-WTG) with full power back to back converters tends to become one of the most promising wind turbine technologies thanks to various advantages. It possesses a significant amount of kinetic energy stored in the rotating mass of turbine blades, which can be utilized to enhance the total inertia of power system. Additionally, the deloaded operation and decoupled control of active and reactive power make it possible for PMSG-WTG to provide a fast frequency regulation through full-power converter.

First of all, a comprehensive and in-depth survey is conducted to analyze the motivations for incorporating the inertial response and frequency regulation of VSWT into the system frequency regulation. Besides, control classifications, fundamental control concepts and advanced control schemes implemented for auxiliary frequency support of individual WT or wind power plant are elaborated along with a comparison of the potential frequency regulation capabilities of four major types of WTs.

Secondly, a Controls Advanced Research Turbine2-Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator wind turbine (CART2-PMSG) integrated model representing the typical configuration and operation characteristics of PMSG-WT is established in Matlab/Simulink,. Meanwhile, two different rotor-side converter control schemes, including rotor speed-based control and active power-based control, are integrated into this CART2-PMSG integrated model to perform Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) operation over a wide range of wind speeds, respectively.

Thirdly, a novel comprehensive frequency regulation (CFR) control scheme is developed and implemented into the CART2-PMSG model based on rotor speed control. The proposed control scheme is achieved through the coordinated control between rotor speed and modified pitch angle in accordance with different specified wind speed modes. Fourth, an improved inertial control method based on the maximum power point tracking operation curve is introduced to boost the overall frequency support capability of PMSG-WTGs based on rotor speed control. Fifth, a novel control method based on the torque limit (TLC) is proposed for the purpose of maximizing the wind turbine (WT)'s inertial response. To avoid the SFD caused by the deloaded operation of WT, a small-scale battery energy storage system (BESS) model is established and implemented to eliminate this impact and meanwhile assist the restoration of wind turbine to MPPT mode by means of coordinated control strategy between BESS and PMSG-WTG.

Last but not the least, all three types of control strategies are implemented in the CART2-PMSG integrated model based on rotor speed control or active power control respectively to evaluate their impacts on the wind turbine's structural loads during the frequency regulation process. Simulation results demonstrate that all the proposed methods can enhance the overall frequency regulation performance while imposing very slight negative impact on the major mechanical components of the wind turbine.


Copyright is held by the author.


Received from ProQuest

Rights holder

Ziping Wu

File size

185 p.

File format





Electrical Engineering, Energy, Engineering