Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Graduate School of Social Work

First Advisor

N. Eugene Walls, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Anamika Barman-Adhikari

Third Advisor

Kathy Green

Fourth Advisor

David Brennan


Gay men, HIV, AIDS, Internalized homophobia, Internalized racism


Black gay, bisexual, queer, and same-gender-loving (GBQSGL) men account for less than 1% of US population, yet account for 36% of all new HIV infections. While, Black GBQSGL men experience higher rates of HIV infection compared to other gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men (MSM) from other racial groups, they are no more likely to report engaging in condomless anal sex (CAS). These findings suggest that one possible explanation is that the context of sexual behavior for Black GBQSGL men may be riskier because of the prevalence of HIV in the community. Furthermore, research suggests that racism and homophobia experienced by Black GBQSGL men because of their social identities may contribute to engaging in CAS. Informed by cultural theory of risk perception and stigma theory, this study examines the role of internalized homophobia and internalized racism on CAS among Black GBQSGL men with respect to the serostatus of their sexual partners. In addition, the study investigates how the relationship between internalized homophobia, internalized racism, and CAS changes depending on the level of perceived masculinity and racial identity of the sexual partners of Black GBQSGL men.

This quantitative study of Black GBQSGL men (N=443) consists of a self-administered web-based survey about the sexual histories, drug histories, HIV risk behaviors, and experiences with social stigma of Black GBQSGL men. The results indicate that while neither internalized homophobia nor internalized racism were related to condom use, other demographic characteristics are associated with CAS. These findings explore the role that identity and intersectionality play when it comes to HIV risk behavior among Black GBQSGL men. Furthermore, both social work practitioners and public health interventions must address psychosocial factors associated with HIV in order to reduce the prevalence of HIV among Black GBQSGL men in the United States.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Darren Lovell Whitfield


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

178 p.


Social Work, Public Health