Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Morgridge College of Education, Teaching and Learning Sciences, Child, Family, and School Psychology

First Advisor

Gloria Miller, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Kathy Green

Third Advisor

Cynthia Hazel

Fourth Advisor

Julie Laser


Academic self-efficacy, Adolescents, Parental involvement, Protective factors, Resilience, Special education


The predictive value of three constructs was examined in this study in order to explain adolescent self-reported protective factors associated with resilience while moderating for the effects of sex and race. The three constructs included Academic Self-efficacy, Maternal Parental Involvement, and Special Education Identification Status. Participants included 54 adolescents in diverse public middle and high schools, ages 11 to 18. Twenty of these participants were identified as receiving special education services while 34 did not. Results indicated that adolescent perceptions of Academic Self-efficacy significantly predicted protective factors associated with resilience while Special Education Identification Status and Maternal Parental Involvement did not add significantly to the prediction. In addition, the moderating effects of sex and race did not add to the regression model, indicating that these constructs had little predictive effect on any of the predictor variables. Implications for enhancing the efficacy of school-based social emotional programming and services for at-risk adolescent youth are discussed in light of these results. Specifically, improving skills related to academic self-efficacy may be more beneficial for fostering protective factors associated with resilience in an adolescent age group.

Publication Statement

Copyright is held by the author. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

Rights Holder

Bethdalie Cruz


Received from ProQuest

File Format




File Size

132 p.


Educational psychology