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Sturm College of Law


Legal writing, Citation


Whenever you list more than one authority to support the same legal proposition, you are using a "string citation." The name arises from the impression that the writer is "stringing" together several citations. In a string citation, each authority follows the next in a proscribed order: (1) by strength of authority (primary before secondary, enacted law before case law); (2) by jurisdiction (federal before state, alphabetically among states); (3) by rank of court (highest to lowest court); and (4) by date (reverse chronological with most recent first).' Semi-colons are placed between each authority.

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