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Daniels College of Business, Marketing


Electronic word of mouth (eWOM), Motivation Opportunity Ability (MOA) framework, EWOM process, EWOM creation, EWOM exposure, EWOM evaluation, Systematic review, Research agenda


Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) is a prevalent consumer practice that has undeniable effects on the company bottom line, yet it remains an over-labeled and under-theorized concept. Thus, marketers could benefit from a practical, science-based roadmap to maximize its business value. Building on the consumer motivation–opportunity–ability framework, this study conceptualizes three distinct stages in the eWOM process: eWOM creation, eWOM exposure, and eWOM evaluation. For each stage, we adopt a dual lens—from the perspective of the consumer (who sends and receives eWOM) and that of the marketer (who amplifies and manages eWOM for business results)—to synthesize key research insights and propose a research agenda based on a multidisciplinary systematic review of 1050 academic publications on eWOM published between 1996 and 2019. We conclude with a discussion of the future of eWOM research and practice.

Publication Statement

This is an Accepted Manuscript of:

Babić Rosario, A., de Valck, K., & Sotgiu, F. (2020). Conceptualizing the electronic word-of-mouth process: What we know and need to know about eWOM creation, exposure, and evaluation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 48, 422-448.

Copyright held by the Academy of Marketing Science. User is responsible for all copyright compliance.

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Ana Babić Rosario, Kristine de Valck, Francesca Sotgiu

File Format



English (eng)


91 pgs

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1.2 MB

Publication Title

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science



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