Discovering the Impact of the Kingore Observation Inventory on the Referral of Gifted Students to an Enrichment Program

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name


Organizational Unit

Morgridge College of Education, Teaching and Learning Sciences

First Advisor

Paul Michalec, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Norma L. Hafenstein, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Kristina A. Hesbol, Ph.D.


Professional development, KOI, Qualitative data, GATE


As a change agent, my hope is to bring awareness and research-based approaches to meeting the needs of our gifted learners in schools. The purpose of this action research was to discover how the Kingore Observation Inventory (KOI), influences teacher referrals for an after-school Gifted and Talented Education Program (GATE) (Kingore, 2001). Teachers took part in professional development of the KOI and learned about descriptors for gifted learners. The KOI tool provided indicators for classroom teachers to utilize when observing learners in the classroom and ultimately, making referrals of gifted learners for a GATE program. This research aimed to discover how teachers’ instructional practices were impacted after the use of the KOI tool. Data collection consisted of interviews, reflective journaling, and surveys. The mixed-methods approach (Creswell, 2014) aimed to gather qualitative and quantitative data in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the study. The data collected was analyzed and several findings emerged. Two noteworthy findings from the use of the KOI tool were an increase in teacher participation in the referral process and educator reflection about beliefs of gifted learners. Additional conclusions and recommendations were identified to continue awareness and instructional support for gifted learners.

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